Cutting off the Link Between IP and Biomedical Innovation Isn’t the Answer to Global Health Care Challenges

Categories: Asma Raza

An advancement framework dependent on prizes could make similarly the same number of, if not progressively, monetary misfortunes. The prize reserve would need to originate from citizens who might need to make good at any rate the $141 billion presently contributed by the private part on R&D every year.”

The expense of drugs is on the motivation this week at the World Health Organization’s yearly official executive gathering in Geneva.

Nongovernmental associations and certain center pay nations contend that market-based medication advancement—dependent on protected innovation rights (IPRs) as its essential impetus—makes meds excessively costly. It comes up short, they state, to give fixes to those most in need however least ready to pay.

A Problematic Proposal

On the edges of gatherings, for example, the one happening this week, nongovernmental associations talk enthusiastically about another model for medicate advancement, where innovative work (R&D) costs are “delinked” from the last costs of medications. They join notables, for example, U.S. Representative Bernie Sanders and Nobel prize-winning financial specialist Joseph Stiglitz.

One of the principle “delinkage” proposition is to supplant the patent framework with government-oversaw prizes.

Under a prize framework, organizations that effectively grow new prescriptions would be compensated with money prizes from an administration or gathering of governments, rather than procuring benefits from having their advancements briefly ensured by licenses.

Winning organizations would need to give up their protected innovation to the administration, permitting nonexclusive producers to enter the market right away. Resulting rivalry between nonexclusive medication makers, so the hypothesis goes, would permit new medications to be sold at their peripheral assembling cost (in addition to extra for a sensible pace of benefit), empowering access to those out of luck.

In the mean time, governments and universal associations would control and plan what malady territories are compensated by prizes, as far as anyone knows guaranteeing subsidizing is apportioned to wellbeing needs in a reasonable and straightforward style.

Delinking the expense of R&D from the last costs of meds and making governments the funders and organizers of medication improvement seems like a basic open social insurance arrangement. Be that as it may, up until this point, no nation has dove in.

This isn’t amazing; for, while externally appealing, delinkage is overflowing with issues.

Unintended Consequences

One charge leveled against the patent-based framework is that it makes misfortunes for patients by blowing up medication costs past their assembling costs.

Be that as it may, it’s the capacity to recover fixed expenses, including R&D, not simply peripheral expenses, through components like patent insurance that lies at the core of all advancement based enterprises. On the off chance that organizations could charge for the expenses of delivering a compound, there would be no new medications grown, similarly as there would be no new items created in any industry.

Also, an advancement framework dependent on prizes could make similarly the same number of, if not progressively, monetary misfortunes. The prize store would need to originate from citizens who might need to make good at any rate the $141 billion as of now contributed by the private segment on R&D every year (a sum expected to move to $180 billion by 2022). Assessment climbs would misshape work advertises and meddle with work creation. It’s impossible the U.S. government (not to mention some other) would give this degree of venture, given the weight on state and administrative spending plans.

Cash aside, structuring prizes that work is much to a greater extent an issue. The principle unanswered inquiry is the manner by which to precisely set a prize an incentive for prescriptions that still can’t seem to be concocted.

Set the prize excessively low, and medication designers—and the investors so instrumental for new companies—would coordinate their capital away from biomedical R&D toward regions that are more secure politically however less socially helpful. New medications would evaporate. Set it excessively high, and wasteful duplication could result.

At long last, there is the issue of politicization. A prize framework would hand critical new optional forces to government authorities as the referees of which meds win prizes. Political variables could impact choices on where to designate subsidizing, as opposed to clinical need.

Infections that could gather the most vocal entryway gatherings would get consideration from prize civil servants, while less-in vogue illnesses might be overlooked. It’s anything but difficult to see delinkage turning into a bonanza for the campaigning business.

Licenses: The Proven Prize

Patent, then again, speak to a far less subjective type of advancement motivating force. Government only sets the structure of patent law, under which all organizations contend.

The present market-based framework entirely accomplishes numerous points progressed by delinkage advocates. In many nations, health care coverage and social protection shields customers from the full expense of drugs. Market rivalry drives advancement and applies descending weight on sedate costs—saw most as of late among transformative hepatitis C medications. Many open private organizations have jumped up all around to guide R&D endeavors to regions that have gotten less consideration, for example, tropical infections.

Utilizing prizes to urge designers to take care of issues is definitely not another thought. The Longitude Prize was broadly granted by the British government in 1737 to John Harrison for his clock-based answer for deciding a ship’s longitude.

However, other than in the innovatively in reverse previous Soviet Union, advancement prizes have never been in excess of a valuable assistant to the IP framework to push the market along—think about the X-Prize for space investigation, or prizes for new anti-infection agents. Furthermore, that is in light of current circumstances.


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My heart squeezes in anticipation of the denouement. I quietly open the bathroom door. Through the bright light pouring from the ceiling, I notice you in the arms of another girl. You are lying in a bathtub filled with foam, a friend is overthrown and passionately kisses you on the lips.Her hands are stroking your breasts and I can see from your swollen nipples how excited you are at this moment. your hands dig into her long hair, you run through it, smoothly passing onto her back and sinking onto her ass. I can see how it turns you on, you completely surrender to passion. I feel a rush of blood all over my body and my penis straining in my panties. I was ready to see you with anyone but a girl. Jealousy and unexpected excitement awaken in me …. You notice me standing in the doorway and looking after you and invite me to enter. I go into the bathroom, from my clothes I am wearing only panties, which you quickly pull off me. We turn on the shower and get under it. You turn your back to me and continue kissing your friend. I hug you from behind and I want you to pay all your attention to me, but you don’t give in and you merge with your friend in a long kiss I’m trying to somehow draw attention to myself and with one hand I start to massage your left breast, and my right hand went down to your vagina. My fingers have already entered you and I begin to massage the G-spot. You continue kissing without paying attention to me. Then you change places with your friend and she is between us. You turn her to face me and pressing on her shoulders inviting her to kneel in front of me. Your girlfriend begins to massage my penis, exposing her hot tongue forward. Oh yes, I certainly did not expect such a gift. She more and more increases the movement and now I already feel my penis in her mouth. I am both ashamed and pleasant at the same time, but it is no longer possible to stop it. I can feel my balls tighten and contract and a warm stream comes out of my body …. … I cum on your friend’s chest. I see how your pupils dilated and you are happy that you made such an extraordinary gift on my birthday … This action turns us on, we get into a hot shower and wash away the remnants of our passion. You leave the shower, wiping each other with snow-white towels, while laughing like a child, joking, go into the room. I wash and go out to you. I find you on the bed in position 69, you are excited and you cannot be stopped .. I stand by the bed for a long time admiring this action, I have never met more beautiful in my life. My penis began to rise and now I’m ready for the second act. You notice this and climb out from under your friend’s arms. A friend continues to stand on all fours, her ass is facing me, you massage this ass and push it apart, as if inviting me to enter it. I stand behind my friend and enter her, I am happy and excited and it seems to me that I can do this forever. You stand behind me, I can feel your breasts sliding down my back, and your nipples digging into my body. It’s probably been over an hour, but I’m still struggling to please your friend. Everything, probably I can no longer and I fall next to me on the bed, it seems that my strength has left me. But you and your friend can no longer be appeased, she climbs on my face and I feel how her labia touched mine and in a minute my tongue penetrates inside her. You have already climbed on top of me and I can feel my penis entering your warm wet vagina. You have already climbed on top of me and I can feel my penis entering your warm wet vagina. I could not even imagine such a turn of events. You jump on me not wanting to stop. An hour later, your strength leaves you, but a wave of pleasure rolls over you and plunges into your paradise with your head, you beat on my penis in sweet convulsions, fall on me and continue kissing me sweetly. I have to finish this case, and I’m pounding on you. You lie on your back and I, on my knees in front of you, enter you once again. Your friend stands behind me and begins to caress my breasts, while kissing my neck. I try to get into you as deeply as possible, your body is cramping and you come again. You would like me to completely immerse myself in your body.I increase the range of motion and a powerful flow envelops my body. Another second and a stream of sperm rushed onto your body, it flows down into thick drops over your breasts and stomach. We all hug and kiss, falling asleep covered with a warm blanket. In a couple of hours we will wake up and continue, but that’s another story … …. This story happened to me not long ago, just a week ago! I am already 20 years old, I started to change at the age of 12. The first sexual experience was painless, I took it in my mouth from a guy who was passing through our city, I was n years old! After that, they had me only orally, and only a few times on a sober head, and in a woman’s! And in the ass, I didn’t give it, not because I didn’t want to, on the contrary, I was burning with desire, to feel in myself a warm penis that pulsates in you stretching the hole, there were simply no such moments.Basically, I just used the opportunity when the guy was drunk and would not remember anything in the morning, I sneaked up and just sucked, sucked long and hard, and then swallowed all the juices, and retired somewhere, with improvised means to satisfy myself anally .. Not much to describe myself, height 173, weight 59 nice face, elastic round ass, always wanting tender lips. I like to wear mini skirts, mostly denim, tight-fitting trousers, tops. … Livchiki only betray their shape, thongs. … panties – shorts (my favorite) lace black, perfectly fit the body and hide a secret! Once they sent me on a business trip, at work … I came home, got ready, and besides what I needed for work, I took my favorite things: a wig, cosmetics, a blue mini-skirt, a charming T-shirt of bright red color, underwear and the stockings were on me. Why did I take this with me, because I live with my parents and it doesn’t always work to indulge my desires, but here I’ll spend the night in a hotel, alone, and these thoughts just drove me crazy all the way. … I will feel like a real girl! Not afraid that someone would notice me … I arrived in the city, literally 2 – and did everything that was required for an hour, just got lucky, got into a taxi and went to the hotel, where a room had already been booked for me! 2nd floor, one room, full of decent apartments, but the beds were why the 2nd, which I immediately noticed. I was strangely surprised, although it is a pity that it will be empty all night, the girl and the night would have passed here with benefit … before I had time to think about it, someone knocked on the door. It seemed, I thought, and began to settle down! Knock on the door again, strange, maybe I left something at the administrator, came up and opened it …. .. There is a guy of about 27, 190 years old, strong, an athlete … Hello – he said, Hello – I replied … I came to you, there were no vacant rooms, and they sent me here, well Well come in, make yourself comfortable! … I still have nothing to do, I’ll be back in an hour! … Good – I answered! Although there was little good in it, a small town, one hotel, but so that people unfamiliar to a friend could be accommodated in the same room, I was simply at a loss … And I was not much upset that now I could not change clothes and become a girl! Okay, I thought, come what may, turned on the TV, opened a bottle of beer, and sat waiting for my companion … An hour passed, a knock on the door … ran to open it. … He came in with a large package … What is your name – that – he asked me Mikhail – I answered. Well, and me Sanka – he replied with a smile: You will drink beer, why just sit there? I will, I already started while you were gone! (Sucking male members is an interesting and useful thing! Look with what enthusiasm our heroes do it! – Ed.) We sat down, laid a small table … Well, why Micah, for acquaintance For acquaintance And they began to drink, Several hours passed, I was already quite drunk, the 6th bottle after all … The beer is over, we got up! Sanya said that we still need to go for a beer, otherwise a sleepy dose, they say, the whole night is still ahead … Let me go, I suggested! No, let me drive it away, but for now …. … And I’ll stay a housewife, I interrupted him … Well, yes, take the trash off the table, the bottles, and I’ll be back right now! I closed the door behind him … I went into the room, and I felt so pleased, I imagined for a moment that he was my man, a male, and I was his girl, who had to take care of him, love him and give herself up! And shouldn’t I change clothes, suddenly this is the very moment, fate gave me, so that finally my dream would come true, to give my virgin ass to be torn apart by a strong, self-confident man !!! What if he does not understand me, what if he is one of those who, like me, simply hate! These thoughts drove me crazy, I didn’t know what to do. A little thought, and I made up my mind !!!! I quickly ran to my bag, I find, dropping everything male …Fortunately, the bra, panties and stockings were already on me, all that was left was to put on a skirt, stuff the bra with something soft to give it a natural shape, and my favorite T-shirt … A wig, straight, blonde hair, almost to the shoulder blades, with a long bang. .. Pamada, in front of the mirror, a little more time to make up the eyelashes, but I won’t have time …. .. I’m ready, beautiful, girl, my heart was just breaking with excitement in my chest, I wonder what his reaction will be? I was waiting at the door, the door slammed and I heard steps going upstairs, I knew that it was him! She opened the doors, went in and sat in the room on an armchair! He came in … Micah, I took another beer – how could you not fall asleep? I was silent, did not know what to answer! HE went into the room, and in the dim light, I saw something beautiful sitting on an armchair … I looked at him and waited for him to say … He was not much confused: Hello, where, aa …… ? Sasha, it’s me But how, maybe I got drunk? I got up, went up to him, let my head down, and waited for him to show at least some initiative … And what should I call you now? Call me Marina, although call me what you want, how you like it more He hugged me around the waist, then his hands went down, and he squeezed my ass with force, pressing it against his penis !! I felt that it was increasing in size, and having little experience, my mouth just wanted to give it warmth, I wanted to feel how it grows in my mouth. Without hesitation, I got down on my knees, stretched out his fly, and pulled him out … He emanated an attractive aroma, I kissed, opened my mouth, and began to embrace him, as a sharp jolt followed, and he was completely in my mouth … He took me by the head, and put on his penis, a pleasant aroma, eggs beat on my chin, it was not forgotten …. He finished pretty quickly, and profusely, warm streams of his sperm hit my throat and flowed down, I swallowed everything like a greedy whore, and sucked everything that was left inside !!!! He lifted me up and threw me on the bed, so that my skirt did not lift up much … Feelings of defenselessness, that you will be used by your body now, that you will be a prostitute who is ready to fulfill any whims of a strong man …. … what could be better …. he turned me over on my stomach, spread my knees wide apart, I bent over so that my hole was accessible, he lifted my skirt and threw it on my back, tore my panties …. … and I felt a sharp slap on my ass, I moaned, he spread my hips to the side with both hands and spat in my anus, and I felt that something rested against my hole, warm, and I bent even more, he slowly, nadovil, but not for a while he could not enter me, then I relaxed even more and he realized this, with a sharp jolt pierced my hole …. a hot cock filled my ass, then he began to fuck me faster and faster, moving back and forth, the secretions of my pussy lubricated his cock well and he walked almost effortlessly, I strained my hole from time to time to stimulate his cock more strongly … he finished right in me, I was at the height of bliss … We fell asleep, and in the morning I got up early, packed my things and disappeared …. … , All of the characters in this story are over eighteen years old. Thursday 18:15 Hayley Johnson was unhappy that she had to return to the women’s locker room. After finishing her softball practice, she showered and changed, then headed to the parking lot to meet up with her teammates and discuss the upcoming weekend tournament. They chatted about everything in the world for forty-five minutes, then said goodbye and headed to their cars. Hayley reached into her purse and found her car keys were nowhere to be found. Frustrated, she assumed they had fallen out of her purse in the locker. The school was almost empty, and she did not meet anyone as she walked down the quiet corridors. She reached for the knob of the women’s locker room and entered the vestibule that separates the corridor from the lockers. Then she opened the second door and walked down the aisles. Haley had almost reached her locker when she heard unusual noises in the dressing room. She stopped and listened. She recognized the sounds of passion coming from somewhere. Haley moved slowly towards the sound, and as she turned the corner of the last row of lockers, her eyes went wide and she stifled a sigh. There, by the bench in the last row, her softball coach Tony, completely naked, was kneeling between the wide-spread hips of Karen Sopeski, the right fielder. Coach Tony’s heavy breasts dangled and swayed in perfect harmony with the rhythm of her tongue as she licked Karen’s bald teenage slit. Karen threw her head back and her eyes were closed in pleasure, her young nipples pointing straight at the ceiling. Hayley stood shocked and fascinated. She had never seen anything like it before, and the electrical charge of excitement that ran through her body was a new experience for her. Of course, she’s got horny before with her boyfriend Justin, but she has never felt such a tingling sensation in her pussy as she did at this very moment. As she continued to watch what was happening, she suddenly realized that she was seeing her coach’s pussy labia from behind, and something shiny caught her attention. OH MY GOD! The trainer had his clitoral hood pierced. Haley’s panties got so wet at the sight of this that she instinctively reached inside her jogging shorts and began rubbing her wet labia. Karen groaned in ecstasy as the trainer increased the speed and strength of her tongue on Karen’s swollen bud. Haley and Karen had finished at the same moment, which in itself could have gone unnoticed by the couple on the bench, if not for the fact that Haley’s knees buckled and she collapsed on a row of lockers that made a loud rattling sound of aluminum doors and locks …Karen’s eyes widened as Coach Tony jumped up and they both stared straight at Haley, who was now slowly pulling her well-oiled fingers out of her shorts. Coach Tony looked at her incredulously, and then, remaining naked, walked over to Haley. Coach Tony’s body was strong and large. Her saggy breasts swayed with every step. She was not fat, but plump. It wasn’t until Tony approached Haley that she noticed several tattoos on the coach’s body, including the explicitly scripted phrase “Licks Here” with an arrow pointing to her clean-shaven cunt. Karen rose from the bench with a look of shock and embarrassment on her face. Coach Tony walked over to Haley, who was leaning against the locker, and, reaching down, grabbed Haley’s hand, soaked with pussy juice, and helped her up. Then the trainer took Haley’s fingers and put them right in his mouth, licking the girl’s tart secretions from her fingers. Hayley felt a new wave of excitement sweep from her head to her pussy. She’s never been like this in her life .

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