Fashion in IPR Mode: Rohit Bal, Anju Modi, Anita Dongre Copyright Designs As Plagiarism Spreads

Categories: News

Rohit Bal (C) poses with models and designers. Reuters

Plagiarism of designs is a growing concern among the Indian fashion industry and is attributed to the lack of awareness surrounding intellectual property rights (IPR) which are available to fashion designers in India. Even as awareness about IPR protection is increasing in India, the law relating to protection of fashion designers’ rights remains unclear.

Copyright protection for designs 
Different IPRs (such as copyrights, trademarks and patents) serve different purposes- patent protects ‘inventions’, copyright protects ‘creative works’ and trademark protects ‘brand-names’ (or elements of a business which act as source indicators). The Intellectual Property (IP) of a designer, i.e. ‘designer clothes’ are best described as ‘creative works’ and are therefore eligible for copyright protection. While creative works such as artistic works are typically protected under the Indian Copyright Act, designs applied to clothes can be copyrighted under the Designs Act 2000. Under the Designs Act, designs which are applied to a specific class of articles (including garments) can be registered. A design must be registered for a particular class of articles as enumerated in the Third Schedule of the Designs Rules, 2001. ‘Articles of clothes and haberdashery’ fall in Class 02 under the Designs Rules.

Under Section 11 of the Designs Act, a registered design is copyrighted for a period of 10 years from the date of registration of the design. The copyright protection can be further extended for five years. Piracy of a registered design is prohibited under section 22 of the Designs Act – this makes it unlawful for a person to apply the registered design or any “fraudulent of obvious imitation” of the design to any class of articles in respect of which the design has been registered. A person who knowingly facilitates the sale of an article which bears a pirated design is also liable for piracy of the design. This means that retailers who consciously sell articles containing pirated designs can also be punished under the Designs Act. Under section 22 of the Copyright Act, the term of protection granted to copyright-holders subsists during the life of the copyright-owner and for 60 years thereafter. According to section 15 (1) of the Copyright Act, protection under the Copyright Act is not applicable to designs which are registered under the Designs Act. Therefore, once a clothes’ design is registered under the Designs Act, the Copyright Act will not apply to it and the work will only enjoy protection under the Designs Act. If a design (which is capable of being registered under the Designs Act) has not been registered, it will be protected under section 15(2) of the Copyright Act; however, the copyright protection will expire on an unregistered design if the design has been reproduced on more than 50 articles.

Issues in copyright protection of designer clothing
Two kinds of designs are conceivable in clothes, namely, a drawing applied on any garment and the shape/design of the clothes (which does not necessarily bear any drawing). An example of the first kind of design is a t-shirt which bears the words, ‘I love Mumbai’ printed on the front. The shape of the t-shirt may be commonplace such as a typical round neck half sleeve t-shirt. In this case, the designer would get the drawing design, i.e. the words, ‘I love Mumbai’ (printed in a particular manner- using a unique combination of words, colours and figures) registered under the Designs Act.

 The second kind of design refers to the design of the clothes itself and includes elements such as shape of the garment, the style in which it has been cut and tailored, and the fabric of the garment. This kind of design is often the subject-matter of IP disputes involving designer clothes. For instance, lehengas designed by Rohit Bal do not have any ‘drawing’ element, and it is the lehenga, the item itself, on which IP protection is sought. Anybody who copies the style of the lehenga would be fraudulently imitating Rohit Bal’s lehenga. So if Rohit Bal designs a particular lehenga style originally in pink, and a person creates a knock-out of that lehenga in black, this would still amount to piracy of Rohit Bal’s designs. This is because under the Designs Act, a ‘design’ also includes the “shape, configuration, pattern, ornament” of any article.

In cases of design infringement of clothes relating to their shape/style etc., it may become very difficult for a judge to decide where to draw the line between ‘permissible copying’ and design piracy. Designer clothes are often improvisations of existing styles of clothes. Therefore, another issue which arises is whether every design is ‘original’ enough to merit protection?

 To illustrate, a ‘Kerala Kasavu’ sari is a handwoven cream sari with a golden border, worn traditionally by women in Kerala. There are designer Kerala Kasavu saris also available. In designer Kerala Kasavu saris, the basic design (cream sari with a gold border) remains the same. Therefore, the creativity or originality of the designer will perhaps lie merely in the design of the blouse or any print added to the sari. Should such designer saris, which are themselves based on an existing design (namely, the kerala kasavu sari), be afforded copyright protection under the Designs Act? Secondly, if someone designs the same blouse (as the original designer) for a kerala kasavu sari but adds a different ‘print’ to the sari, will this amount to design piracy of the original design?

In the absence of a landmark judgment in India on the issue of design piracy involving designer clothes, it is best to assume that only obvious/identical imitations or imitations with minor differences (such as colour) would be considered design piracy.

35 Comments

  1. Pleasure Cheap Viagra

  2. It’s going to be end of mine day, except before finish I am reading this great
    paragraph to improve my knowledge.

  3. Hi! I’m at work surfing around your blog
    from my new iphone 3gs! Just wanted to say I love reading your blog and look forward to all
    your posts! Keep up the great work!

  4. Genuinely no matter if someone doesn’t understand afterward its up
    to other viewers that they will assist, so here it occurs.

  5. I couldn’t resist commenting. Well written!

  6. This post presents clear idea designed for the new visitors of blogging, that in fact
    how to do blogging.

  7. Hmm it looks like your site ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what
    I had written and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.
    I as well am an aspiring blog blogger but I’m still new to everything.

    Do you have any recommendations for inexperienced blog writers?
    I’d definitely appreciate it.

  8. It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and
    it is time to be happy. I have read this submit
    and if I may just I want to counsel you some interesting issues or tips.
    Perhaps you could write next articles relating to this article.

    I want to learn more issues approximately it!

  9. Thank you for sharing your thoughts. I truly appreciate your efforts
    and I am waiting for your further write ups thanks once again.

  10. Pretty! This was an extremely wonderful article. Thank you for providing these details.

  11. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your sites really nice, keep it up!
    I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back in the future.
    Many thanks

  12. excellent points altogether, you just gained a
    new reader. What may you suggest about your put
    up that you made some days in the past? Any sure?

  13. Methylprednisolone Urinary Infection

  14. My brother recommended I might like this website. He was totally right.
    This post actually made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent
    for this info! Thanks! cheap flights http://1704milesapart.tumblr.com/ cheap flights

  15. It is perfect time to make some plans for the longer term
    and it is time to be happy. I have learn this post and
    if I could I wish to recommend you few interesting issues or advice.
    Maybe you could write subsequent articles regarding this
    article. I want to read even more issues approximately it!

    scoliosis surgery https://0401mm.tumblr.com/ scoliosis surgery

  16. Amazing! Its actually awesome piece of writing, I have
    got much clear idea about from this piece of writing.
    quest bars http://tinyurl.com/49u8p8w7 quest bars

  17. I like the helpful information you provide in your articles.
    I will bookmark your blog and check again here regularly.
    I am quite sure I will learn plenty of new stuff right here!
    Best of luck for the next! asmr https://app.gumroad.com/asmr2021/p/best-asmr-online asmr

  18. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to say that I have really enjoyed browsing your blog posts.

    In any case I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I
    hope you write again soon! ps4 https://tinyurl.com/45xtc52b ps4 games

  19. Generic Priligy 60 Mg

  20. Amoxicillin Dose Adult Strep Throat

  21. What’s up to all, how is everything, I think every one is
    getting more from this site, and your views are fastidious for new people.

    https://parttimejobshiredin30minutes.wildapricot.org/ part time jobs hired in 30 minutes

Leave Comments

Contact Us

Monday – Saturday: 9 am to 6 pm
Sunday: day off