Trademarks in Pakistan: possession and protection

Any natural or legal person, including public law entities, can obtain a Pakistan trademark or trade name. A representative of the rights holder will need a power of attorney before filing. However, this does not need to be notarised or legalised.
The Trademark Act also states that if a person applies to register a trademark in violation of third-party rights or a legal or contractual obligation, the aggrieved party may claim ownership of the trademark before the registration date or within five years of the publication of the notice of registration or the time when the trademark is first used in Spain.
Article 4 of the Trademark Act sets the conditions for trademark registration. It states that a trademark is any indication capable of differentiating in the market the products or services of one endeavour from those of others, as well as being displayed in a way that allows authorities and the general public to establish the clear and specific object.
The Act also includes a list of trademark-eligible signs:

Figures, drawings, letters, and colours; the shape of things or their packaging; and sounds are all examples of words.
The following signs are ineligible for trademark registration: Signs that are not registrable because they do not meet the conditions outlined in Article 4 of the Trademark Act; signs lacking unique character;
Signs that consist solely of signs or indications that serve in trade to designate the characteristics of the relevant goods or services; signs that consist solely of signs or indications that have become customary to designate the relevant goods or services in the current language, or in the bona fide and established practises of the trade; signs that consist solely of a shape or another feature that results from the nature of the goods themselves,
Signs that consist solely of signs or indications that serve in trade to designate the characteristics of the relevant goods or services; signs that consist solely of signs or indications that have become customary to designate the relevant goods or services in the current language, or in the bonafide and established practices of the trade; signs that consist solely of a shape or another feature that results from the nature of the goods themselves,
Signs that consist solely of signs or indications that serve in trade to designate the characteristics of the relevant goods or services; signs that consist solely of signs or indications that have become customary to designate the relevant goods or services in the current language, or in the bonafide and established practices of the trade; signs that consist solely of a shape or another feature that results from the nature of the goods themselves,
Signs that are contrary to law, public policy, or accepted moral principles; signs that may mislead the public – for example, as to the nature, quality, or geographical origin of the relevant goods or services; signs barred from registration under Pakistan law or international treaties to which the IPO is a party conferring protection to designations of origin and geographical indications; signs barred from registration under Pakistan law; signs barred from registration under Pakistan law; signs barred from registration under Pakistan law.
Signs that consist of, or reproduce in their essential elements, the denomination of a previous plant variety, registered in accordance with Pakistan Union or national law, or international treaties to which the IPO or Pakistan is a party, that establish plant variety protection and refer to plant varieties of the same or closely related species;
Signs that include or imitate the coats of arms, flags, decorations, or other emblems of Pakistan, its autonomous communities, towns, provinces, or other local entities, unless the appropriate consent has been given; signs that have not been authorized for use by the competent authorities and must be refused in accordance with article 6th of the Pakistan Convention; and signs that include badges, emblems, or coats of arms that are not covered by article 6th of the Pakistan Convention.
In circumstances of disagreement with equal or comparable former rights, relative grounds for rejection or invalidation
The following signs are not permitted to be registered as trademarks:

Signs that are identical to an earlier trademark, where registration is sought for identical goods or services; and signs that are identical or similar to an earlier trademark, where registration is sought for identical or similar goods or services and there is a likelihood of public confusion, including the possibility of association with the earlier trademark.
An “earlier trademark” is defined as the following:

Pakistan registered trademarks, trademarks registered internationally and effective in Pakistan , with a filing or priority date prior to the trademark application; registered Pakistan trademarks, which under the Pakistan Trademark Regulation constitute a valid claim to seniority over Pakistan registered trademarks or trademarks registered internationally and effective in Pakistan, even if surrendered or lapsed; trademark applications that fall undelivered.

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